The process of developing the final list of indicators included the process for collecting, measuring and interpreting indicators related to eInfrastructures as well as the process of verifying, validating and updating the data values for such indicators from various sources in conjunction with the consultation activities.The set of indicators that was selected and adopted for populating the European eInfrastructures Observatory is elaborated in sub-sections (grouped per visualisation service and category where applicable). Each selected indicator is detailed on the basis of two main attributes:

•    What does this indicator measure/reveal?
•    Who is the organisation responsible for collecting/monitoring the data for this indicator?

Category Indicator name What Who

Networking infrastructure

NREN typical backbone capacit The typical capacity of the linked nodes in the core of the network (Mbps).In cases where it is not possible to determine a “core backbone”, for example, in networks with a star topology, the maximum capacity of the central node of the network is used.  TERENA
NREN direct IP connection to GEANT The NREN operational external IP links to GEANT (Mbps). In general, connections to GÉANT carry education and research traffic. They can be very specialised data, often transmitted in huge volumes in very short time frames.  TERENA

Supercomputing infrastructure

National supercomputers maximum performance  Sum of maximum performances achieved in the Linpack benchmark by all national supercomputers in the top500 list (Gflop/s). “Linpack  performance” is the maximum performance of a computer achieved in the HPL benchmark.  TOP500
National supercomputers peak performance Sum of theoretical peak performances achieved in the Linpack benchmark for all national supercomputer in the top500 list.  TOP500
National supercomputers number of cores Sum of cores in all national supercomputers in the top500 list. The cores are the units within a processor that read and execute program instructions.  TOP500
National supercomputers number of processors Sum of processors in all national supercomputers in the top500 list. Processors were originally developed with only one core. A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent actual cores, which are the units that read and execute program instructions.  TOP500
National supercomputers in the top500 list Number of supercomputers at national level in the top500 list (worldwide)  TOP500
Grid   infrastructure NGI number of cores Sum of all logical CPUs in all Grid sites connected to the NGI
NGI installed disk capacity Sum of installed disk capacities in all Grid sites connected to the NGI. The capacity is measured in Pbytes (PB)
NGI maximum performance Sum of maximum performances achieved in the HEP SPEC CPU benchmark for all Grid sites connected to the NGI
NGI number of sites connected to the NGI Total number of Grid sites connected to the NGI
Usage NREN IP traffic from external networks External traffic consists of all traffic to GEANT, the commercial Internet, Internet Exchanges, etc.  TERENA
NREN backbone congestion index The congestion index depicts the congestion that end-users experience on their connections to the NREN. The congestion index is calculated according to the following formula: (0.05*little+0.2*some+0.5*serious)–5  TERENA
NGI core hours The normalised CPU time used in the NGI (HEP-SPEC06 benchmark)
NGI number of jobs The total number of jobs submitted to the NGI
Users Researchers  “Researchers” are professionals engaged in the conception and creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, as well as those who are directly involved in the management of projects. The number of researchers is measured in Head Count including staff engaged in R&D during the course of one year regardless of whether they work on a part- or full-time basis.  UNESCO
R&D personnel The research and development staff is measured in Head Count consisting of all persons employed directly on R&D, as well as those providing direct services such as R&D managers, administrators and clerical staff regardless of whether they work on a part- or full-time basis.  UNESCO
Teaching staff in tertiary education Total teaching staff in tertiary education is measured in Head Count comprising public and private education, full and part-time occupation. Total tertiary education includes programmes with an educational content more advanced than what is offered at ISCED levels 3 and 4.  UNESCO
Teaching staff in secodary education Total teaching staff in secondary education is measured in Head Count comprising public and private education, full and part-time occupation.Total secondary education includes programmes at ISCED levels 2 and 3.  UNESCO
Students in tertiary education Population of the age-group theoretically corresponding to a given level of education as indicated by theoretical entrance age and duration. Total school age population in tertiary education is measured in Head Count.  UNESCO
Students in secondary education Population of the age-group theoretically corresponding to a given level of education as indicated by theoretical entrance age and duration. Total school age population in secondary education is measured in Head Count.  UNESCO
Investments   NREN budget Since NRENs differ from one another in terms of their remit and how they are organised, the NREN budget includes the budget only related to activities for national research and education communities. (Millions of euros)  TERENA
Impact Patent applications They are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention i.e. a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.  World Bank
Publications Publications refer to a set of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, earth and space sciences. Published scientific papers are not only a key output of a country’s science system; they also indicate the degree to which the country is integrated in the international scientific community.Articles are classified by year of publication and assigned to region/country/economy on basis of institutional address/es listed on article. Articles on fractional-count basis, i.e., for articles with collaborating institutions from multiple countries/economies, each country/economy receives fractional credit on basis of proportion of its participating institutions.   Science Citation Index
Digital agenda       Fixed broadband penetration The “broadband penetration rate” describes the number of dedicated, high-speed connections per 100 inhabitants. Broadband lines are defined as those with a capacity equal to or higher than 144 kbits/s. Various technologies are covered; ADSL, cable modem as well as other types of access lines. “Broadband penetration rate” is expressed in percentages and it is calculated as the number of broadband access lines divided to population, multiplied by 100.Number of broadband access lines per 100 inhabitants  ITU
Mobile broadband penetration The broadband penetration describes the number of active users of dedicated data service cards/modems/keys per 100 people.   Eurostat
Regular internet  users Internet users refer to the estimated number of Internet users out of the total population of the country. This includes those using the Internet from any device (including mobile phones) in the last 12 months. A growing number of countries are measuring this through household surveys. In situations where data are not available, an estimate can be derived based on the number of Internet subscriptions.  ITU
Population who have never used the internet The percentage of population who have never used the internet (individuals aged 16-74)  Eurostat
Fixed broadband internet connection charge Fixed broadband Internet connection charge refers to the initial, one-time charge for a new fixed (wired) broadband Internet connection. The tariffs should represent the cheapest fixed (wired) broadband entry plan. Refundable deposits are not counted. Taxes are included. This indicator is expressed in US$.  ITU
Fixed broadband monthly internet suscription Fixed broadband Internet monthly subscription refers to the monthly subscription charge for fixed (wired) broadband Internet service. Fixed (wired) broadband is considered any dedicated connection to the Internet at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s, using DSL. Where several offers are available, preference is given to the 256 kbit/s connection. Taxes are included. This indicator is expressed in US$.  ITU
International commercial internet bandwidth The International Internet bandwidth (bits/s) refers to the total capacity of international Internet bandwidth. If capacity is asymmetric (i.e., more incoming than outgoing), the incoming capacity is provided. This is measured as the sum of capacity of all Internet exchanges offering international bandwidth.  ITU
Europe 2020 Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D "Expenditures on research and development” are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. GERD is measured as a percentage of GDP.  UNESCO
Unemployment rate The total number of unemployed persons (aged 15-74 years old) as a percentage of the labour force.  Eurostat
 Other     Gross domestic product The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. It is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. Data are in current U.S. dollars for comparative reasons.    World Bank
Gross domestic product per capita GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. Data are in current U.S. dollars.  World Bank
Gross enrolment ratio Gross enrolment ration is the number of pupils enrolled in a given level of education regardless of age expressed as a percentage of the population in the theoretical age group for that level of education.  UNESCO
Population Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, which are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values are mid-year estimates.  World Bank
Surface area Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways in square. Kilometres (Sq. km (thousands))  World Bank
Stakeholders Mapping   National Research & Education Networks (NRENs) A National Research and Education Network (NREN) is a specialised internet service provider dedicated to supporting the needs of the research and education communities within a country. It is usually distinguished by support for a high-speed backbone network, often offering dedicated channels for individual research projects.  TERENA
National Grid Initiatives (NGIs) National Grid Initiatives are organisations set up by individual countries to manage the computing resources they provide to the European e-Infrastructure (EGI). NGIs are EGI’s main stakeholders, together with CERN and EMBL, two European Intergovernmental Research Organisations (EIROs). Each NGI contributes a number of sites to the grid infrastructure. NGIs are responsible for the maintenance and running of the sites they operate.
Supercomputer centers A supercomputer center is a site with a supercomputer that is shared by a number of other sites, usually research sites. Only the centers that are included in the top500 list are presented.  TOP500
Pan-European Networks GÉANT Network The GÉANT Network interconnects Europe’s National Research and Education Networks, providing research data communication across the continent. It provides the high-performance, high bandwidth network infrastructure that is fundamental to the European Union’s vision of a European Research Area (ERA). The GÉANT network reaches 40 countries through interconnectivity with its NREN project partners, delivering seamless connectivity to an estimated 40m research and education users across Europe. DANTE
Cross-border fibre A number of countries have or are planning to install cross-border dark fibre links, i.e. connecting neighbouring NRENs. Cross-border dark fibre is optical fibre dedicated to use by a single organisation – where the organisation is responsible for attaching the transmission equipment to “light” the fibre. DANTE

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